The Slovenský Čuvač originated in the Tatra Mountain area of what is now Slovakia and the Czech Republic. It is a very old breed whose DNA reveals a link to dogs descended from Arctic wolves. They were first documented in the 17th century, but were found in the region long before that. They were primarily used as livestock guardian and herding dogs, but also as protectors of the home and family. They were originally known as Tatranský Čuvač. With the modernization of farming and shepherding, the use of the Čuvač as a working dog declined and there were fewer and fewer of these beautiful dogs to be found. Then World War I brought the breed to near extinction.
After World War I, Dr. Antonin Hrůza of the Brno School of Veterinary Medicine set out to save the Čuvač. He gathered Čuvač dogs from various areas and began a breeding program. In 1933, breeders based in Brno founded the "The Club of the Breeders of Tatranský Čuvač" and the club started its stud book of registered dogs. The club became a member of the former Czechoslovak Federation Canine Kennel Club and the Czechoslovak Union and its members through the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI).
World War II and the German occupation brought an end to most of the organized breeding of the Čuvač. But in 1950, when Prof. Hrůza died, interest in the Tatranský Čuvač was renewed. A breed standard was approved in 1964 and the breed was recognized by the FCI in 1965. The name of the breed was later changed to prevent some confusion from the name of another breed. "Tatranský Čuvač" was changed to "Slovakian Čuvač" and now the breed is commonly known as the Slovenský Čuvač.
Recently, there has been a revival in interest in bringing back the Slovenský Čuvač to its original use as a livestock guardian dog.